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What are Functional Road Classes (FRC)?

Detailed question: 

Functional classification is the process by which roads are grouped into classes according to the character of service they are intended to provide. Cities, towns, businesses, farms, homes, schools, recreation areas and other places generate or attract trips. These trips involve movement of vehicles through a network of roads. It becomes necessary to determine how travel movement can be channeled within a limited road network in a logical and efficient manner. Functional classification defines the nature of this channeling process by defining the role that any particular road or street should play in serving the flow of trips through a road network. The heavy travel movements are directly served by major channels, and the lesser trips are channeled into somewhat indirect paths.  Functional Road Classes are designed to categorize segments based on their functional importance within the Transportation Network. There are nine classifications of the Functional Road Class:



Short Description

Long Description


Motorways; Freeways; Major Roads

All roads that are officially assigned as motorways.


Major Roads less important than Motorways

All roads of high importance, but not officially assigned as motorways, that are part of a connection used for international and national traffic and transport.


Other Major Roads

All roads used to travel between different neighboring regions of a country.


Secondary Roads

All roads used to travel between different parts of the same region.


Local Connecting Roads

All roads making all settlements accessible or making parts (north, south, east, west and central) of a settlement accessible.


Local Roads of High Importance

All local roads that are the main connections in a settlement. These are the roads where important through traffic is possible e.g.:

  • arterial roads within suburban areas, industrial areas or residential areas;
  • a rural road, which has the sole function of connecting to a national park or important tourist attraction.


Local Roads

All roads used to travel within a part of a settlement or roads of minor connecting importance in a rural area.


Local Roads of Minor Importance

All roads that only have a destination function, e.g. dead-end roads, roads inside living area, alleys: narrow roads between buildings, in a park or garden.


Other Roads

All other roads that are less important for a navigation system:

  • a path: a road that is too small to be driven by a passenger car;
  • bicycle paths or footpaths that are especially designed as such;
  • stairs;
  • pedestrian tunnel;
  • pedestrian bridge;
  • alleys that are too small to be driven by a passenger car.